Fundamental Concepts of Computer Languages
From Jonathan Gardner's Tech Wiki
- Expressions (and statements)
- Variables, or "how do I get the computer to remember stuff?"
- Functions, or "how do I encapsulate code?"
- Exceptions, or "what do I do when something weird happens?
- Objects, or "how do I encapsulate code and data together?"
- Data Structures, or "what are some neat patterns in data and algorithms?"
- Flow Control, or "how do I get my program to do something different in different circumstances?"
- I/O, or "How do I talk with the rest of the world?"