Fundamental Concepts of Computer Languages

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  1. Expressions (and statements)
  2. Variables, or "how do I get the computer to remember stuff?"
  3. Functions, or "how do I encapsulate code?"
  4. Exceptions, or "what do I do when something weird happens?
  5. Objects, or "how do I encapsulate code and data together?"
  6. Data Structures, or "what are some neat patterns in data and algorithms?"
  7. Flow Control, or "how do I get my program to do something different in different circumstances?"
  8. I/O, or "How do I talk with the rest of the world?"